Kharaneh IV Research
The Kharaneh IV project explores the nature of interaction and aggregation in the Azraq Basin at the end of the Pleistocene. Kharaneh IV is a multi-component Epipalaeolithic site located in the Eastern Desert of Jordan, approximately 70 km east of Jordan’s capital Amman at the western edge of the Azraq Basin. It is an exceptionally large Epipalaeolithic site, approximately 21 000 m2 in size, making it one of the largest Terminal Pleistocene occupations in the Levant. The high density of artifacts, repeated occupation, and the presence of multiple habitation structures suggests that several small groups were aggregating at Kharaneh IV. Excavations at Kharaneh IV explore evidence of this aggregation and social interaction in hunter-gatherer communities prior to the origins of agriculture.
Current research on the lithic assemblage of Kharaneh IV includes technological and microwear analysis of the lithic assemblage from several habitation structures to understand the use of domestic space.
Excavations at Kharaneh IV are ongoing and inquiries about conducting research on the assemblage, especially for Masters or PhD projects, are welcome. Please contact Dr. Danielle Macdonald for further information on the Kharaneh IV project: firstname.lastname@example.org
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology Donald O. Henry is directing two research projects based largely on lithic assemblages held in the collection.
One deals with a comparative study of the production economies of lithic technologies associated with industries of Modes I-V. In this, edge production efficiency is measured by an Edge Production Index (i.e., useable edge by weight of an artifact) for various lithic classes and an Overall Edge Production Index which is calculated by the total edge generated by the total weight of the raw material consumed in a reduction cycle.
The second project relates to assessing the degree to which heat-treating may have been employed in altering the physical/ chemical features of lithic artifacts recovered from the living floors of the Late Levantine Mousterian site of Tor Faraj (J430). The research involves a comparative study of the chert varieties exploited at the site before and after experimental heat-treating and employs several analyses that provide for quantitative assessments of any changes generated by heat-treatment of the cherts.
Jones, Matthew, Lisa Maher, Tobias Richter, Danielle A. Macdonald, and Louise Martin. Human-Environment Interactions through the Epipalaeolithic of Eastern Jordan. Chapter in The Archaeology of Human-Environment Interactions: Strategies for Investigating Anthropogenic Landscapes, Dynamic Environments, and Climate Change in the Human Past. Edited by Daniel Contreras. Routledge Studies in Archaeology Series. Pages 121-140.
Macdonald, Danielle A., Michael Chazan, and Joel Janetski. The Geometric Kebaran Occupation and Lithic Assemblage of Wadi Mataha, Southern Jordan. Quaternary International. 396, 105-120.
Maher, Lisa, Danielle A. Macdonald, Adam Allentuck, Louise Martin, Anna Spyrou, and Matthew Jones. Occupying Wide Open Spaces? Late Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherer Activities in the Eastern Levant. Quaternary International. 396, 79-94.
Jones, Matthew, Lisa Maher, Danielle A. Macdonald, Conor Ryan, Claire Rambeau, Stuart Black, Tobias Richter. The Environmental Setting of Epipalaeolithic Aggregation Site Kharaneh IV. Quaternary International. 396, 95-104.
Ramsey, Monica N., Lisa A. Maher, Danielle A. Macdonald, and Arlene Rosen. Risk, Reliability and Resilience: Phytolith Evidence for Alternative ‘Neolithization’ Pathways at Kharaneh IV in the Azraq Basin, Jordan. PLoS ONE 11 (10):e0164081. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164081.
Macdonald, Danielle A. Book Review: Beyond the Fertile Crescent: Late Paleolithic and Neolithic Communities of the Jordanian Steppe. The Azraq Basin Project, Vol. 1. By Andrew Garrard and Brian Byrd (2013). Levant Supplementary Series 13, Oxbow Books, Oxford UK. Geoarchaeology 30 (5), 452-453.
Henry, Donald O., Seiji Kadowaki, and Sean M. Bergin. Reconstructing Early Neolithic Social and Economic Organization through Spatial Analysis at Ayn Abu Nukhayla, Southern Jordan. American Antiquity 79(3): 401-424.
Henry, Donald O and Joseph E. Beaver (editors). The Sands of Time: The Desert Neolithic Site of Ayn Abu Nukhayla. Ex Orient.
Macdonald, D. A. Interpreting Variability through Multiple Methodologies: The Interplay of Form and Function in Epipalaeolithic Microliths. PhD Thesis, University of Toronto.
Maher, L. A., and D. A. Macdonald. Assessing Typo-Technological Variability in Epipalaeolithic Assemblages: Preliminary Results from Two Case Studies from the Southern Levant. In F. Borrell, J. J. Ibanez & M. Molist (Eds.), Stone Tools in Transition: From Hunter-Gatherers to Farming Societies in the Near East. 7th Conference on PPN Chipped and Ground Stone Industries of the Fertile Crescent. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Servei de Publicacions, Barcelona, pages 29-44.
Maher, L. A., and D. A. Macdonald. Exploring Typo-Technological Diversity in Chipped Stone from Epipalaeolithic Kharaneh IV, Eastern Levant. CBRL Bulletin 7(1):42-59.
Maher, L.A., T. Richter, J.T. Stock, D. Macdonald, M. Jones, and L. Martin. Twenty Thousand-Year-Old Huts at a Hunter-Gatherer Settlement in Eastern Jordan. PLoS One 7(2): e31447. doi:10.1371/.
Henry, Donald O. The palimpsest problem, hearth pattern analysis, and Middle Paleolithic site structure. Quaternary International 247(1): 246-266.
Bergin, Sean, Donald O. Henry, and Seiji Kadowaki. Tracing Floors and Fills in Early Neolithic Pithouses: An Example from the Excavation of Ayn Abu Nukhlayla, Southern Jordan. In Between Sand and Sea. The Archaeology and Human Ecology of Southwestern Asia, edited by N.J. Conrad, R.H. Meadow, A. Morales, and P. Drechsler, pp. . Kerns Verlag, Tübingen.
Henry, Donald O. Domestic activities and spatial distribution in Ain Abu Nukhayla (Wadi Rum, Southern Jordan): The use of phyoliths and spherulites studies. Quaternary International 193(1): 174-183.
Henry, Donald O. Tubingen-Damascus excavation and survey project 1999-2005. Journal of Anthropological Research 64(1): 146-147.
Henry, Donald O. Time-space patterns observed in Pre-pottery Neolithic B point attributes from Ayn Abu Nukhayla. Journal of Eurasian Prehistory 5(1): 3-20.
Henry, Donald O. Ayn Abu Nukhayla: Early Neolithc adaptation to the arid zone. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 35: 353-370.
Henry, Donald O., Naama Goren-Inbar, and John D. Speth. Human Peleoecology in the Levantine Corridor. Mitekufat Jaenen: Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society: 485-489.
Henry, Donald O. and Rosa Maria Albert. Herding and agricultural activities at the early Neolithic sit of Ayn Abu Nukhayla (Wadi Rum, Jordan). The Results of phytolith and spherulite analyses. Paléorient 30(2): 81-92.
Henry, Donald O., Harold J. Hietala, Arlene M. Rosen, Yuri E. Demidenko, Vitaliy I. Usik, and Teresa L. Armagan. Human Behavioral Organization in the Middle Paleolithic: Were Neanderthals Different?. American Anthropologist 106(1): 17-31.
Shea, John J. and Donald O. Henry. Neanderthals in the Levant: Behavioral Organization and the Beginnings of Human Modernity. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research.
Henry, Donald O. (editor). Neanderthals in the Levant: behavioral organization and the beginnings of human modernity. Continuum, London.
Henry, Donald O. The Emergence of Modern Humans: Issues and Debates. In Neanderthals in the Levant: Behavioral Organization and the Beginnings of Human Modernity, edited by Donald O. Henry, pp. 3-10.
Henry, Donald O. The Levant and the Modern Human Debate. In Neanderthals in the Levant: Behavioral Organization and the Beginnings of Human Modernity, edited by Donald O. Henry, pp. 12-31.
Henry, Donald O. A Case Study from Southern Jordan: Tor Faraj. In Neanderthals in the Levant: Behavioral Organization and the Beginnings of Human Modernity, edited by Donald O. Henry, pp. 33-58.
Henry, Donald O. Human Behavior and the Stone Tools from Tor Faraj. In Neanderthals in the Levant: Behavioral Organization and the Beginnings of Human Modernity, edited by Donald O. Henry, pp. 60-84.
Henry, Donald O., Carlos Cordova, J. Joel White, Rebecca M. Dean, Joseph E. Beaver, Heidi Ekstrom, Seiji Kadowaki. Joy McCorriston, April Nowell, and Linda Scott-Cummings. The Early Neolithic Site of Ayn Abu Nukhayla, Southern Jordan. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 330(330): 1.
Henry, Donald O. Transhumance during the Late Levantine Mousterian. In The Middle Paleolithic: Adaptation, Behavior, and Variability, edited by Harold L. Dibble and Paul Mellers, pp. 143-162. The University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.
Henry, Donald O. Intrasite spatial patterns and behavioral modernity: Indications from the Late Levantine Mousterian Rockshelter of Tor Faraj, Southern Jordan. In Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia, edited by Takeru Akazawea, Kenishi Aoki, and Ofer Bar-Yosef, pp.127-142. Springer, USA.
Henry, Donald O. Models of agricultural origins and proxy measures of prehistoric demographics. In The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, edited by R.T. Cappers and S. Botteman, pp. 15-26. ExOriente, Berlin.
Henry, Donald O., Heather A. Bauer, Kristopher W. Kerry, Joseph E. Beaver, and Joel J. White. Survey of Prehistoric Sites, Wadi Araba, Southern Jordan. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 323: 1-19.
Henry, Donald O. and Yoshiro Nishiaki. Lithic Technology of Northern Syria. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 324: 113.
Kerry, Kristopher W. and Donald O. Henry. Conceptual Domains, Competence, and Chaine Operatoire in the Levantine Mousterian. In The Archaeology of Jordan and Beyond: Essays in honor of James A. Sauer, edited by L.E. Stager, J.A. Greene, and M.D. Coogan, pp.238-254. Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Indiana.
Henry, Donald O., Stefan Karol Kozlowski, and Hans Georg K. Gebel. Neolithic Chipped Stone Industries of the Fertile Crescent, and Their Contemporaries in Adjacent Regions: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on PPN Chipped Lithic Industries, Institute of Archaeology, Warsaw University, 3rd-7th April, 1995. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research.
Henry, Donald O. and Mina Weinstein-Evron. Early Natufian el-Wad Revisited. Mitekufat: Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society: 135-139.
Henry, Donald O. (editor). The Prehistoric Archaeology of Jordan. BAR International Series 705. Archaeopress, London.
Henry, Donald O. Prehistoric human ecology in the Southern Levant east of the Rift from 20,000 to 6,000 BP. Paléorient 23(2): 107-119.
Henry, Donald O. Functional minimalism versus ethnicity in explaining lithic patterns in the Levantine Epipaleolithic. Antiquity 70(267): 135-136.
Henry, Donald O., Stephen A. Hall, Harold J. Hietala, Yuri E. Demidenko, Vitaly I. Usik, Arlene M. Rosen, and Patricia A. Thomas. Middle Paleolithic behavioral organization: 1993 excavation of Tor Faraj, southern Jordan. Journal of Field Archaeology 23(1): 31-53.
Henry, Donald O. Prehistoric Cultural Ecology and Evolution: Insights from Southern Jordan. Plenum Press, New York.
Henry, Donald O. The influence of mobility levels on Levallois point production, late Levantine Mousterian, southern Jordan. In The Definition and Interpretation of Levallois Technology, edited by H.L. Dibble and Ofer Bar-Yosef, pp. 185-200.
Henry, Donald O. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern Jordan. Science 265(5170): 336-341.
Henry, Donald O. The impact of radiocarbon dating on Near Eastern prehistory. In Radiocarbon After Four Decades, pp. 324-334. Springer, New York.
Miller, Gifford H. and Donald O. Henry. The Implications of Amino Acid Racemization Dates of Levantine Mousterian Deposits in Southern Jordan. Paléorient 18(2): 45-52.
Henry, Donald O.Transhumance during the late Levantine Mousterian. The Middle Paleolithic: Adaptation
Henry, Donald O. Foraging, sedentism, and adaptive vigor in the Natufian: Rethinking the linkages. In Perspectives on the Past: Theoretical Biases in Mediterranean Hunter-Gatherer Research, pp.353-370. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Henry, Donald O. (editor). From Foraging to Agriculture: The Levant at the End of the Ice Age. University of Pennsylvania Press, Cambridge.
Henry, Donald O. Correlations between reduction strategies and settlement patterns. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 1(1): 139-155.
Henry, Donald O. The Epipaleolithic Sequence within the Ras En Naqb-El Quweira Area, Southern Jordan. Paléorient 14(2): 245-256.
Henry, Donald O. Summary of Prehistoric and Paleoenvironmental Research in the Northern Hisma. In The Prehistory of Jordan, pp. 7-37.
Henry, Donald O. Climatic change, settlement mobility, and technological evolution during the Paleolithc. Israel Journal of Earth-Sciences 36(1-2): 121-129.
Henry, Donald O. Topographic influences on Epipaleolithic land-use patterns in southern Jordan. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan 3: 21-28.
Henry, Donald O. The prehistory and paleoenvironments of Jordan: an overview. Paléorient: 5-26.
Henry, Donald O., Priscilla F. Turnbull, Aline Emery-Barbier, and Arlette Leroi-Gourhan. Archaeological and Faunal Evidence from Natufian and Timnian sites in Southern Jordan, with Notes on Pollen Evidence. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research: 45-64.
Henry, Donald O. Preagricultural sedentism: the Natufian example. In Prehistoric Hunter Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, pp. 365-384. Academic Press.
Henry, Donald O., Fekri A. Hassan, Kathleen Cooper Henry, and Marcia Jones. An Investigation of the Prehistory of Southern Jordan. Palestine Exploration Quarterly London 115: 1-24.
Henry, Donald O. Adaptive Evolution within the Epipaleolithc of the Near East. Advances in World Archaeology 2: 99-160.
Henry, Donald O. Paleolithic Adaptive Strategies in Southern Jordan: Results of the 1979 Field Season. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan I: 55-58.
Henry, Donald O. The Prehistory of Southern Jordan and Relationships with the Levant. Journal of Field Archaeology 9(4): 417-444.
Henry, Donald O., Arlette Leroi-Gourhan, and Simon Davis. The Excavation of Hayonim Terrace: An Examination of Terminal Pleistocene Climatic and Adaptive Changes. Journal of Archaeological Science 8(1): 33-58.
Henry, Donald O., Fekri A. Hassan, and Kathleen Cooper Henry. An Investigation of the Prehistory and Paleoenvironments of Southern Jordan. Annual of the Department of Antiquities 25: 113-114.
Henry, Donald O. Paleolithic Sites Within the Ras en Naqb Basin, Southern Jordan. Palestine Exporation Quarterly 111(2): 79-85.
Henry, Donald O.Paleoithic Sites within the Ras en Naqb Basin, Southern Jordan. Annual of the Department of Antiquities Amman 23: 93-99.
Henry, Donald O. An Examination of the Artifactual Variability in the Natufian of Palestine. Eretz Israel 13: 229-239.
Henry, Donald O. and Arlette Leroi-Gourhan. The Excavation of Hayonim Terrace: An Interim Report. Journal of Field Archaeology 3(4): 391-406.
Henry, Donald O. Rosh Zin: A Natufian Settlement near Ein Avdat. Prehistory and Paleoenvironments in the Central Negev, Israel 1: 317-347.
Henry, Donald O. The Fauna in Near Eastern Archaeological Deposits. In Problems in Prehistory: North Africa and the Levant, pp. 379-385. SMU Press, Dallas.
Henry, Don O. and A. Frank Servello. Compendium of Carbon-14 Determinations Derived from Near Eastern Prehistoric Deposits. Paléorient 2(1): 19-44.
Henry, Don O. and Simon Davis. The 1974 Excavation of Hayonim Terrace (Israel): A Brief Report. Paléorient 2(1): 195-197.
Henry, Don O. The Utilization of the Microburin Technique in the Levant. Paléorient 2(2): 289-398.
Henry, Don O. The Natufian Site of Rosh Zin: A Preliminary Report. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 105(2): 129-140.