Below you will find citations and abstracts of the empirical and scientific literature related to ERRT. Due to copyright restrictions of the respective journals, only the abstracts and citation information is provided.
Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy could treat residual nightmares following PTSD treatment
McDermott, T. J., Lee, J. Y., Paquet, C. P., Huber, F. A., Sitz, A. L., Robertson, K., & Davis, J. L. (2021)
Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy for trauma-related nightmares with psychiatric inpatients: A case series.
Reiter, H., & Humphreys, L. (2021)
A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma-related nightmares in active duty military personnel.
Pruiksma, K.E., Taylor, D.J., Mintz, J., Nicholson, K.L., Rodgers, M., Young-McCaughan, S., Hall-Clark, B.N., Fina, B.A., Dondanville, K.A., Cobos, B., Wardle-Pinkston, S., Litz, B.T., Roache, J.D., Peterson, A.L., STRONG STAR Consortium. (2020)
The impact of Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy for post-trauma nightmares on suicidal ideation
Cogan, C. M., Lee, J. Y., Cranston, C. C., Pruiksma, K. E., Rhudy, J. L., & Davis, J. L. (2019)
Predictors of treatment non-initiation, dropout, and response for cognitive behavioral therapy for trauma nightmares.
Miller, K. E., Micol, R. L., Davis, J. L., Cranston, C. C., & Pruiksma, K. E. (2019)
The impact of suspected sleep apnea on exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy (ERRT): a preliminary examination.
Miller, K. E., Cranston, C. C., Simonet, D. V., Pruiksma, K. E., & Davis, J. L. (2018)
Management of post-traumatic nightmares: A review of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments since 2013.
Waltman, S. H., Shearer, D., & Moore, B. A. (2018)
Pilot study: Brief posttrauma nightmare treatment for persons with bipolar disorder.
Miller, K. E., Davis, J. L., & Rhudy, J. L. (2018)
Randomized controlled trial to dismantle Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy (ERRT) for trauma-related nightmares.
Pruiksma, K. E., Cranston, C. C., Rhudy, J. L., Micol, R. L., & Davis, J. L. (2018)
Preliminary validation of a brief measure of the frequency and severity of nightmares: The Trauma-Related Nightmare Survey.
Cranston, C. C., Miller, K. M., Davis, J. L., & Rhudy, J. L. (2017)
Efficacy of a Brief Treatment for Nightmares and Sleep Disturbances in Veterans
Balliett, N. E., Davis, J. L., & Miller, K. (2015)
Taking Control: Examining the Influence of Locus of Control on the Treatment of Nightmares and Sleep Impairment in Veterans
Miller, K. E., Davis, J. L., & Balliett, N. E. (2014)
A case series: cognitive-behavioral treatment (exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy) of trauma-related nightmares experienced by children.
Fernandez, S., Cromer, L. D., Borntrager, C., Swopes, R., Hanson, R. F., & Davis, J. L. (2012)
Physiological Predictors of Response to Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Nightmares
Davis, J.L., Rhudy, J.L., Pruiksma, K.E., Byrd, P., Williams, A.E., McCabe, K.M., & Bartley, E.J. (2012)
The Role of Cognitions in Imagery Rescripting for Posttraumatic Nightmares
Long, M.E., Davis, J.L., Springer, J., Elhai, J.D., Rhudy, J.L., Teng, E.J., & Frueh, B.C. (2011)
Imagery Rescripting and Exposure Group Treatment of Posttraumatic Nightmares in Veterans with PTSD
Long, M.E., Hammons, M.E., Davis, J.L., Frueh, B.C., Khan, M.M., Elhai, J.D., & Teng, E.J. (2011)
Multi-Component Treatment for Posttraumatic Nightmares in Vietnam Veterans: Two Case Studies
Wanner, J., Long, M.E., & Teng, E.J. (2010)
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Nightmares in Trauma-Exposed Persons: Assessing Physiological Reactions to Nightmare-Related Fear
Rhudy, J.L., Davis, J.L., Williams, A.E., McCabe, K.M., Bartley, E.J., Byrd, P.M., & Pruiksma, K.M. (2010)
A Combined Group Treatment for Nightmares and Insomnia in Combat Veterans: A Pilot Study
Swanson, L.M., Favorite, T.K., Horin, E., & Arnedt, J.T. (2009)
Physiological-Emotional Reactivity to Nightmare-Related Imagery in Trauma-Exposed Persons With Chronic Nightmares
Rhudy, J.L., Davis, J.L., Williams, A.E., McCabe, K.M., & Byrd, P.M. (2008)
Randomized Clinical Trial for Treatment of Chronic Nightmares in Trauma-Exposed Adults
Davis, J.L., & Wright, D.C. (2007)
Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Treatment for Trauma-Related Nightmares
Davis, J.L., & Wright, D.C. (2006)
Case Series Utilizing Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy: Impact on Nightmares, Sleep Quality, and Psychological Distress
Davis, J.L., & Wright, D.C. (2005)
Treatment of Nightmares Related to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in an Adolescent Rape Victim
Davis, J.L., DeArellano, M., Falsetti, S.A., & Resnick, H.S. (2003)
No abstract available.
McDermott, T. J., Lee, J. Y., Paquet, C. P., Huber, F. A., Sitz, A. L., Robertson, K., & Davis, J. L. (2021). Exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy could treat residual nightmares following PTSD treatment. Psychiatry Research, 295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113630
Objective: This study investigated whether a brief psychotherapy for post-trauma nightmares (exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy [ERRT]), reduced suicidal ideation (SI). We hypothesized that: (a) nightmare frequency and severity, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and sleep quality would be related to SI at pretreatment; (b) SI would decrease from pre- to post-treatment; and (c) the decrease in SI would remain after controlling for change in PTSD and depression.Seventy-five individuals exposed to a traumatic event and who experienced frequent nightmares (minimum one per week) participated in ERRT. Participants were not required to have a psychological diagnosis. Thirty percent endorsed SI at pretreatment.Results: Depression and PTSD were related to SI at pretreatment. SI decreased following treatment; however, the third hypothesis was not supported. Conclusion:Results suggest brief psychotherapy targeting post-trauma nightmares may decrease SI. More research is necessary to determine what factors contribute to decreases in SI.
Cogan, C. M., Lee, J. Y., Cranston, C. C., Pruiksma, K. E., Rhudy, J. L., & Davis, J. L. (2019). The impact of Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy for post-trauma nightmares on suicidal ideation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 75(12), 2095-2105. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22852
Objective: This report aims to extend previous findings on predictors of treatment dropout and response within nightmare treatment. Method: Factors predicting treatment noninitiation, dropout, and response were examined in 70 trauma-exposed individuals treated in a randomized controlled trial of 2 conditions (exposure [EX] and nonexposure) of a therapy for trauma nightmares. Results: Together, treatment noninitiation and dropout was predicted by younger age for the EX condition only and by fewer nights with nightmares at baseline for both conditions. Treatment noninitiation was predicted by fewer nights with nightmares. Treatment dropout was not predicted by any variables. For the EX condition, more baseline nightmares predicted more posttreatment nightmares, whereas more reported nights with nightmares at baseline predicted fewer nightmares at posttreatment. Baseline sleep quality and total posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity predicted posttreatment sleep quality and PTSD severity, respectively. In the nonexposure condition, more traumatic events predicted fewer nightmares at posttreatment, whereas more nightmares predicted more nightmares at posttreatment. Baseline daytime sleepiness predicted worse posttreatment sleep quality, and total PTSD symptom severity predicted posttreatment PTSD severity. Conclusions: Baseline symptom severity on constructs targeted in treatment are the best indicators of response. Treatment initiation appears to be more significant than dropout. Identifying reasons for treatment noninitiation is needed to maximize engagement.
Miller, K. E., Micol, R. L., Davis, J. L., Cranston, C. C., & Pruiksma, K. E. (2019). Predictors of treatment non-initiation, dropout, and response for cognitive behavioral therapy for trauma nightmares. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 11, 122-126. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000389
Purpose: Trauma exposure is associated with nightmares, insomnia, and increased reports of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which may exacerbate trauma symptoms and interfere with treatment outcome. This study explored the impact of suspected OSA on treatment outcomes following Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy (ERRT) for chronic trauma-related nightmares. Methods: Seventy trauma-exposed adults participated in a trial of ERRT. Self-reported OSA was assessed at baseline. Nightmare frequency and severity, sleep quality, insomnia severity, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms were measured at baseline, and then one-week, three-months, and six-months following the end of treatment. Results: Individuals with suspected OSA reported greater baseline symptom severity across all outcomes, except nightmare frequency, compared to their non-apnea counterparts. All participants reported significant reductions across symptoms following treatment, yet symptom levels in those with suspected OSA remained elevated compared to the non-apnea group. No significant group by time moderation emerged. Conclusions: Trauma-related nightmares and associated symptoms are amenable to treatment, despite suspected OSA. Yet, individuals with OSA may continue to report clinically-significant symptoms, highlighting the potential need for an integrated therapy approach.
Miller, K. E., Cranston, C. C., Simonet, D. V., Pruiksma, K. E., & Davis, J. L. (2018). The impact of suspected sleep apnea on Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy (ERRT): A preliminary examination. J Sleep Disord Med Care 1(1). doi: 10.16966/2577-882X.103
Post-traumatic nightmares (PTN) are a common and enduring problem for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other clinical presentations. PTN cause significant distress, are associated with large costs, and are an independent risk factor for suicide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for PTN exist. A previous review in this journal demonstrated that Prazosin, an alpha blocker, was a preferred pharmacological treatment for PTN and imagery rescripting therapy (IRT) was a preferred non-pharmacological treatment. Since that time, new and important research findings create the need for an updated review.
Waltman, S. H., Shearer, D., & Moore, B. A. (2018). Management of post-traumatic nightmares: A review of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments since 2013. Current psychiatry reports, 14(108). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0971-2.
Previous research on an efficacious cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttrauma nightmares and sleep disturbances (exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy; ERRT) has not tested the treatment in individuals with bipolar disorder. However, research suggests that individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for trauma exposure and development of posttrauma symptoms. The present pilot study sought to examine the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a modified version of ERRT (ERRT-B) on reducing the frequency and severity of nightmares and improving sleep quality for 7 trauma-exposed individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder who also reported frequent posttrauma nightmares (experienced on average for 16 years). Participants attended 5 weeks of ERRT-B and completed baseline, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up assessments to measure changes in nightmare frequency, nightmare severity, and associated symptoms. Large effect sizes were observed for nightmare frequency, nightmare severity, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, with 6 participants reporting zero nightmares at the 3-month follow-up assessment. Improvements in depression, global sleep quality, and insomnia severity were mixed. Results obtained from this study offer preliminary evidence in support of ERRT-B in reducing nightmare frequency and severity, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. These results suggest clinical utility for the treatment of trauma-related nightmares in individuals with bipolar disorder and encourage more research.
Miller, K. E., Davis, J. L., & Rhudy, J. L. (2018). Pilot study: Brief posttrauma nightmare treatment for persons with bipolar disorder. Dreaming, 28(2), 150. https://doi.org/10.1037/drm0000082
Trauma exposure has been linked to external locus of control (E-LOC). This feeling of uncontrollability may be maintained after the trauma by recurring posttrauma nightmares. The present study utilized data from a larger trial, with 19 U.S. veterans, examining the efficacy of a modified version of treatment for nightmares, to examine changes in locus of control in relation to improvements in symptomatology following treatment. Following treatment, internal control beliefs about sleep and nightmares significantly increased, while general control beliefs did not change. Preliminary evidence that exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy for military personnel (ERRT-M) is associated with increased sense of control over sleep and nightmares was observed.
Miller, K. E., Davis, J. L., & Balliett, N. E. (2014). Taking control: Examining the influence of locus of control on the treatment of nightmares and sleep impairment in veterans. Military Behavioral Health, 2(4), 337-342.
Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioral therapies for nightmares in trauma- exposed individuals. This randomized clinical trial replicated a study of Exposure, Relaxation, & Rescripting Therapy (ERRT) and extended prior research by including broad measures of mental health difficulties, self-reported physical health problems, and quality of life. Additionally, physiological correlates of treatment-related change assessed from a script-driven imagery paradigm were assessed. Forty-seven individuals were randomized to treatment or waitlist control. The treatment group demonstrated improvements relative to the control group at the one- week post treatment assessment. At the six month follow-up assessment, significant improvements were found for frequency and severity of nightmares, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, sleep quality and quantity, physical health symptoms, anger, dissociation, and tension reduction behaviors. Participants also reported improved quality of life. Treatment- related decreases in heart rate to nightmare imagery was correlated with improvements in sleep quality and quantity; treatment-related decreases in skin conductance to nightmare imagery was correlated with improvements in nightmare severity, posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, sleep quality, and fear of sleep; and treatment-related decreases in corrugator activity to nightmare imagery was correlated with improved physical health. Findings provide additional support for the use of ERRT in treating nightmares and related difficulties and improving sleep.
Arch, J. J., Eifert, G. H., Davies, C., Vilardaga, J. C. P., Rose, R. D., & Craske, M. G. (2012). Randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for mixed anxiety disorders. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 80(5), 750. doi: 10.1037/a0028310
Despite growing support for the use of imagery rescripting to treat posttraumatic nightmares (PTNMs), its underlying mechanisms have not been examined. This secondary data analysis piloted the proposal that modification of posttraumatic cognitions is a mechanism of change when using a manualized PTNM imagery rescripting intervention. Significant linear reductions in posttraumatic cognitions were observed from baseline through 6-month follow-up evaluations. Change in total negative cognitions was significantly correlated with change in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Initial amount of change in subscale scores also predicted the amount of distal change observed at the 6-month follow-up. These findings provide preliminary evidence that trauma-related cognitions may improve over time as a result of imagery rescripting.
Long, M. E., Davis, J. L., Springer, J. R., Elhai, J. D., Rhudy, J. L., Teng, E. J., & Frueh, B. C. (2011). The role of cognitions in imagery rescripting for posttraumatic nightmares. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(10), 1008-1016. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20804
This study details results of an open trial of a group psychological treatment for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic posttraumatic nightmares called “Imagery Rescripting and Exposure Therapy” (IRET). IRET is a variant of a successful imagery rescripting treatment for civilian trauma-related nightmares that was modified to address the needs of the Veteran population. Thirty-seven male U.S. Veterans with PTSD and nightmares attended 6 multicomponent group sessions. Findings indicated that the intervention significantly reduced frequency of nightmares and PTSD severity, as well as increased hours of sleep. Unlike the few open trials examining treatment of nightmares in Veterans, effect sizes in this study were similar to those that have been found in the civilian randomized controlled trial. These preliminary findings suggest that a nightmares treatment can be adapted to successfully reduce distress associated with combat Veterans’ chronic nightmares. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Long, M. E., Hammons, M. E., Davis, J. L., Frueh, B. C., Khan, M. M., Elhai, J. D., & Teng, E. J. (2011). Imagery rescripting and exposure group treatment of posttraumatic nightmares in Veterans with PTSD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(4), 531-535. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.12.007
Posttraumatic nightmares (PTNMs) are trauma-related distressing dreams that cause a person to wake up. PTNMs can be a devastating addition to the clinical picture of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), because they can result in increased levels of PTSD symptoms and overall distress and decreased sleep; they are also often resistant to typical PTSD treatments. While specialized treatments have been developed and empirically examined in the civilian population, these treatments have not been thoroughly explored with the Veteran population, despite the fact that 50%-88% of Vietnam Veterans experience chronic PTNMs. This article presents two case reports involving Vietnam Veterans. These reports describe the initial investigation of a variant of a treatment that has been successful in treating chronic PTNMs in the civilian population and has been modified to meet the needs of the Veteran population. Analyses revealed that both Veterans reported moderate reductions in sleep disturbances over the course of treatment, as well as clinically significant reductions in PTSD and depressive symptoms across assessments. These preliminary findings provide encouraging data that warrant further study. Limitations and future research are discussed.
Wanner, J., Long, M. E., & Teng, E. J. (2010). Multi-component treatment for posttraumatic nightmares in Vietnam veterans: two case studies. Journal of Psychiatric Practice®, 16(4), 243-249. doi:10.1097/01.pra.0000386910.31817.b5
Insomnia and nightmares are hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sleep disturbances in PTSD negatively impact clinical course and functioning. In this open clinical trial, the preliminary effects of a combined treatment for insomnia and nightmares in combat veterans with PTSD were assessed. Ten combat veterans participated in a 10-session group treatment combining cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia with exposure, rescripting, and relaxation therapy. Participants maintained daily sleep and dream diaries and completed self-report measures of sleep quality and PTSD symptoms pre- and posttreatment. Participants reported improvements in sleep and nightmares following treatment. Future research using controlled designs to evaluate this treatment is warranted.
Swanson, L. M., Favorite, T. K., Horin, E., & Arnedt, J. T. (2009). A combined group treatment for nightmares and insomnia in combat veterans: a pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 22(6), 639-642. doi: 10.1002/jts.20468
Nightmares and sleep disturbance are fundamental concerns for victims of trauma. This study examined the efficacy of a manualized cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) for chronic nightmares in trauma-exposed individuals via a randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group or wait-list control group, with 27 participants completing the treatment. At the 6-month follow- up assessment, 84% of treated participants reported an absence of nightmares in the previous week. Significant decreases were also reported in symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress, fear of sleep, and number of sleep problems, while sleep quality and quantity improved. The present study adds to the growing literature indicating this brief CBT as a first-line treatment for trauma-exposed individuals with chronic nightmares.
Davis, J. L., & Wright, D. C. (2007). Randomized clinical trial for treatment of chronic nightmares in trauma‐exposed adults. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(2), 123-133. doi: 10.1002/jts.20199.
Experiencing a traumatic event may initiate or exacerbate the occurrence of nightmares. Nightmares may impact sleep quality and quantity, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression. Recently, imagery rehearsal has gained attention in the treatment of trauma-related nightmares and is reported to be promising in the reduction of nightmares. On the basis of the vast literature describing the therapeutic benefits of exposure techniques for anxiety-related problems, the treatment was modified to enhance the exposure component. This article presents a case series using this modified version of imagery rehearsal, Exposure, Relaxation, and Rescripting Therapy, with 1 male and 3 female participants. Overall, the participants treated reported a reduction in nightmare frequency and severity; 3 out of 4 participants also reported a reduction in posttraumatic stress and depression symptomatology and an increase in sleep quality and quantity. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.
Davis, J. L., & Wright, D. C. (2006). Exposure, relaxation, and rescripting treatment for trauma-related nightmares. Journal of trauma & dissociation, 7(1), 5-18. https://doi.org/10.1300/J229v07n01_02